His indigenous origins initiated an immense vague hope with
changes and reforms among the Aymara and Quechua populations during his access
to power in 2005, when he was elected with more than 50% of votes.
Indeed, Evo Morales Ayma was,
during the 90’s, a representant of cocaleros, strong advocate for independence
regarding the United States, and protester of the existing order. His proximity
on the field and, without doubt, his physical aspect with which almost the
entire indigenous population was able to identify, led him, to his own
surprise, at the head of the State.
The political program that allowed Evo
Morales to access to the presidency was mostly directed on the energy industry
(nationalizations, drastic rise of rate on hydrocarbon exploration, etc.), on
the equal distribution of the country’s richness (increasing minimum wage among
other things), on revalorization of subnational cultivations (a few time after
his nomination as president, he also received the title of Apu Mallku, supreme
commander of the Indians of the Andes, during a traditional Andean celebration)
and on external policy that is voluntary leftist (close relationships with
Chavez in Venezuela, Correa in Ecuador and Castro in Cuba).
Nevertheless, his arrival to power
hasn’t been so easy. First, because the population living in plains, and
moreover in Santa Cruz, is exhausted by this “indio” considered as unable to
rule the affairs of the nation and perceived as too dangerous for the economic
dynamism of the eastern part.
In addition, these last years,
strikes, manifestations and social conflicts have warned of renewed. The
implementation of a new constitution crystallized claims from different regions
and different social areas, which is in order to acquire even more advantages,
or in order to freeze reforms that would be too much disadvantageous.